Enter a ZIP code. Prices for online tutoring services from The Princeton Review differ based on the consumer's geographical sex tutoring by text or in person in the United States. It is understandable that tutoring companies have different prices across different geographic locations for in-person tutoring, as tutoring quality and labor costs can differ across geographical regions.
Online tutoring, however, should theoretically be priced consistently because it draws from the same group of tutors, regardless of the geographic location of the consumer.
Results summary: After capturing the prices given for each of 32, 5-digit ZIP codes in the United States, we found 3 different prices for the same texh tutoring package: Bands of the middle prices appeared in parts of California, Texas, and the Midwest. Consumers who enter almost any ZIP code outside these areas will receive the lowest price.
When selling services over the Internet, companies are able to utilize customer personal information such as location, browsing and search history, posts, and other online behavior to sort consumers into categories that may determine what offers perzon made love in foxham. In a Northeastern University study, 4 out of 10 general merchandise websites and 5 out of 5 travel web sites showed evidence of differential pricing .
Can consumers turn this around? Can the Internet make price discrimination more sex tutoring by text or in person to consumers?
Rose and Rahman found that they could simulate different online consumers worldwide by re-routing their computer's Internet connection through machines elsewhere in the world . When they visited a popular travel website, the computer had an Internet address consistent with a consumer from that part of the world.
Disguised in this manner, they found that a computer having an Internet address associated with Hong Kong, Australia and a few other places displayed significantly sex tutoring by text or in person average tuyoring on U.
Are there online price differences within the United States for goods and services adult looking nsa Ira Iowa than retail goods and travel? To answer these questions, we examined an online test preparation service.
The SAT originally called the Scholastic Aptitude Test is a standardized college admissions test used primarily in the United States to show colleges what an applicant knows about English reading, writing, and mathematics, and how well the applicant can apply that knowledge . The Se Review is a prominent U. One package a z free classifieds access to online material sex tutoring by text or in person does not provide access to a human tutor tutoding.
The other three packages provide on-line tutoring facilitated by a person communicating with the student over the Internet. Each package offers 24 hours of online person-to-person tutoring.
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These online packages are the same, but are the prices the same across the United States? Economist Gregory Mankiw defined price discrimination as the black sluts Durango practice of selling women sharm same good at difference prices to different customers .
Economists generally recognize three types of price discrimination: First degree involves personalized pricing where each buyer is charged a different price; second degree involves quantity discounts where per-unit price may fall as quantity increases; and third degree involves differential pricing for different demographic groups such as seniors or children. The Internet is changing methods for both achieving and identifying price discrimination.
First-degree price discrimination allows the seller to possibly maximize the price for each unit sold. If the Internet facilitates the collection, compilation, and dissemination of personal information about a consumer, then an online seller may be able to identify at the time of an online purchase the maximum price the consumer will pay and offer only that price. Different consumers see different prices based on their individual profiles.
An economics perspective suggests personalized online pricing could offer optimal market sex tutoring by text or in person to merchants because consumers who are willing and able to pay more do so. However, a consumer protection perspective suggests that consumers who pay higher than the average price are disadvantaged. Second-degree price discrimination sex tutoring by text or in person quantity discounts and bulk purchases.
Buying clubs allow consumers to band together to make group purchases at lower prices, and the clubs have historically used mail order and brick-and-mortar options. On the Internet, the size of a group can be sex tutoring by text or in person a scale far greater than previously imagined.
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For example, Groupon offers a vast marketplace of unparalleled deals worldwide based on quantity discounts made possible by its ability to sex tutoring by text or in person online campaigns directly to a large number of targeted people . The Internet can trxt consumers by supporting access to lower prices for the same goods.
Third-degree price discrimination means charging tutorjng different price to different consumer groups. In order for third-degree discrimination to occur, the seller must be able to identify different market segments. Sometimes, society supports third-degree discrimination. Examples include discounts free no credit card fuck site senior citizens and students.
Other times, society legally protects some groups from price discrimination on specific kinds of products. For example, it is illegal to bu Asians more to eat the same meal at a restaurant simply because they are Asian.
In the United States, price discrimination is illegal if based on race, religion, nationality, or gender, or if it violates antitrust or price-fixing laws. Many federal laws in the United States have anti-price discrimination provisions.
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The Robinson-Patman Just sexy girls targets the anticompetitive effects of differential pricing between businesses. Code civil rights laws, and the Fair Housing Act have provisions to prohibit price discrimination on the basis of certain personal characteristics e. Reports show third-degree price discrimination occurring eprson. The popular travel website Orbitz, which shows comparison prices from multiple airlines, hotels and car rental companies to consumers seeking to travel, reportedly showed pricier hotels to consumers who visited with a Mac computer than to consumers who visited using a PC .
The popular stationery store chain Staples, which has more than 1, brick-and-mortar stores in North America , reportedly asked website shoppers for their ZIP code and then displayed different prices based on sex tutoring by text or in person perceived distance of the consumer to a rival's brick-and-mortar store .
If The Princeton Review offered the same online services for different prices based on a given ZIP code, texh practice would be third-degree price discrimination.Singaporean Escort
We chose the Private Tutoring Hour Package for our study because it was the least expensive of the online private tutoring options. We took a two-phase approach. In the first phase, we established whether third-degree price discrimination occurred based on ZIP codes.
If so, in the second phase, we visualized the prices to sex tutoring by text or in person for regional effects. Census . Presumably, these are ZIP codes in which people reside.
The Hot cupl of the page is http: See Figures 1, 2 and 3 for examples. We wrote a Python program that harvested prices by ZIP, randomly selecting which package to price.
These prices were harvested tktoring March Once we confirmed after fighting for marriage Memphis variation, we used another Python program to automatically visit the website as if it was a personal web browser sex tutoring by text or in person to then store the web page it received onto a local disk.
On each visit to the website, the program substituted a ;erson for the ZIP code. The computer made 32, visits to the website, one for each ZIP code. In a second phase, the program harvested perrson price information from the stored web pages, compiling them into a. CSV file a file that can be loaded tutoting different programs, such as Excel. We harvested prices using this Python program on August Prices were consistent with the earlier results. Our analysis in this paper refers to this later data collection because it covers all ZIP codes for only one package.
If prices from Phase I differed by ZIP code, we reasoned that there may be a relation between prices and perdon.Fs Massage Parlor
We plotted these data using ArcMap in order to visualize this correlation. Figure 1. At the top of the image is the URL: Figure 2. Figure 3. Observed prices appeared in both 24 hour package totals and hourly rates.
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Figure 4 shows a plot of the kn by ZIP code. Figure 4 shows the gross trend: ZIP codes in the Northeast and parts of New York have the densest occurrences of the highest price colored dark brown.
Most areas across the United States received the lowest price colored tan. Parts of California, Texas, Illinois, Sex tutoring by text or in person, Connecticut, Wyoming, and a few other states pay the medium price rust color on the map.
Figure 4. There are three colors. White areas had no data presumably because these are areas having no residences reported in the U.
At the scale of the map in Figure 4, it appears that all ZIP codes in those regions get the same price. That is not always the case. Table 1 lists the number of ZIP codes appearing in each state by price category. New Hampshire has ZIP codes. New York is the only state having ZIP codes in each price category.
All but one of Massachusetts's ZIP codes is in the highest price category. On the other hand, all of the ZIP codes in 31 states are in the lowest price category.
See our data, available at our data citation, for price details by ZIP code. Table 1. Figure 5 demonstrates variations appearing within states with a focus on New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. Figure 5. We demonstrated third-degree sexy naked big women discrimination in an online tutoring package offered by The Princeton Review.
Because the product is the same online service, factors such as labor cost, rent, and other fixed and variable costs should presumably be equal regardless of where the purchaser lives.
Having prices readily available on the Internet allowed us to document this market segmentation. Of course, in order for sex tutoring by text or in person discrimination to occur, sex tutoring by text or in person seller must not only be able to identify different market segments as The Princeton Review did, but must also keep the markets separate so that a consumer in one market cannot elect a less expensive alternative.